Civilizations: England

Overview
The English civilization dates back to ancient times; modern-day England, as we know it, was essentially molded by the numerous conflicts and power struggles throughout England's violent history.

During the 1st millennium BC, Celtic tribes overran the British Isles-overwhelming the indigenous inhabitants, and asserting the land as their own. The Celts remained as a dominant force until the Roman occupation, which brought the England to a new echelon of prosperity. The British Isles served as an emulation of Roman culture until their legions withdrew from Britain at the end of the fourth century to the onslaught of the Anglo-Saxon horde.

These Germanic Angle and Saxon tribes that invaded Great Britain seized power from the Romans, and renamed the islands "Angle-Land," which in turn resulted in the name "England." The Anglo-Saxons ruled the British Isles until the Norman Conquest of 1066. Under the command of Duke William, Norman troops prevailed at Hastings on October 14. William (later known as the conqueror) was crowned king in Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day. The rise of the Normans set future disputes and claims for power between England in France in motion; this later erupted into the Hundred Years' War.

The Hundred Years' War was a conflict between the English and French monarchy during 1337 and 1453. The root of the war stemmed from the disputes concerning the rightful sovereign of France and the ownership of French territories. Battles were won and lost, treaties were signed and broken, but in the end, the British lost this elongated conflict to the Kingdom of France.

English history was also influenced greatly by Elizabeth I, who ruled from 1558 to 1603. Her reign was marked by increased prosperity and immense achievements, such as the defeat of the Spanish Armada by Sir Francis Drake, as well as grand literary accomplishments such as that of William Shakespeare. Truly, it is no wonder this era in time became known as the Elizabethan Age.

The aforementioned events are just a few of the many that have collaboratively helped to bring England into the threshold of the modern world.

Other Attributes
England is perhaps, the finest all-around civilization from the Middle Ages to the Imperial Age. The English have a well-rounded military and economy, as well as excellent scouting, reconnaissance, and espionage abilities.

Additional Information
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